Red Paint, Red Ochre

iron seep 1 rt 30 brattleboro 2019

iron seep 2 rt 30 brattleboro 2019

iron seep 3 rt 30 brattleboro 2019

Iron-oxidizing bacteria feed on dissolved ferrous solutions in groundwater at the point where it emerges back into the atmosphere. There it may form deposits of ferrous oxide which can be collected and converted into yellow or red ochre pigments. This is also a historical source of what is known as bog iron.

These pigments are an important resource for many indigenous cultures, including the Wabanakiak. Ochre is a strong, persistent pigment that can last for thousands of years and has many practical and ceremonial uses. At times, the trickling iron-rich water will create intricate, organic cell-like patterns on rock or soil as the molecules aggregate. Sometimes it’s just a rainbow shimmer on the water surface.

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W8kwses in Nd’akinna

red fox w8kwses winter

In the interests of sharing some of the insightful conversations happening here and there… A discussion of the Abenaki names for “fox” and its variants on the Western Abenaki Facebook page this past week (02.09.2019) led to a discovery about its original and expansionist range. I would like to archive that dialogue here.

How would you conjunct “red fox” as a person’s name aln8baiwi? I was thinking mkuigow8kwses
Mkuiw8kwses
Mkuigiw8kwses

Eric Brier Mkwiôkwses. For a name: Liwizo mkwiôkwses or ni wizwôgan mkwiôkwses or however to indicate it’s a name. So either liwizi- “to be called” or “wizwôgan” for “name”
Joseph Joubert If white fox is w8bi8kwes it stands to reason mekwi8kwes is red fox. I rest me case.

Wendell Sanborn Joseph Joubert wliwni Nijia Thank you brother

 

Wendell Sanborn Joseph JoubertJoseph so would it also make good grammatical sense pinefox would be koai8kweses?
Joseph Joubert No, because there is no such word in the English language as pinefox.

Wendell Sanborn Joseph Joubert thank you wliwni

Conor Quinn As Joseph Joubert points out, the main way to do it is likely

mkwi(w)ôkwsess

That’d be my best guess, too.

If you wanted to do it the other way, it would not be mkwigiôkwsess but
makwigit wôkwsess

…but that would be a more roundabout, literal ‘fox that is red’, so I think Elie’s version is more natural, and as he shows, more fits the pattern of similar expressions.

Joseph Joubert Thank you Conor. I have trouble expressing why I choose something other than I would use it. Thank you for offering a reason for its use. I am not a pro, but I was brought up surrounded by Abenaki speakers. My mother would stop others in the language, and announce that her son understands what is being said in Abenaki.
Rich Holschuh I could be wrong but I was under the impression that w8kwses IS the name for a red fox, as the type for all the others. Gray fox has his own name: wibegwigid w8kwses. White fox has his own name: w8biw8kwses. So it may be duplicative to specify mkwi8kwses, but it certainly does clarify!

Wendell Sanborn Rich Holschuh w8kwses = fox. But I am understanding it is a “given” that it is red as it is not specifically mentioned otherwise. Is this correct?
Rich Holschuh Wendell, I could be off the mark, but that was my understanding. Happy to learn otherwise if it is not so.

 

Jesse Bruchac Rich Holschuh I suspect it just means fox as red foxes are new to the area only migrating into the northeast in the 1800s or possibly introduced from Europe around that time.

Rich Holschuh Jesse, your answer provoked surprise and then curiosity. I was not aware that red foxes had that sort of range history. So I looked into it and found a great recent paper on exactly that!

I found that your observation did indeed have basis, but was able to get some clarification around the delimitations of native and expansionist ranges. I was pleased to learn that the study’s conclusions were that the eastern red fox’s original range approximates the Wabanaki homelands (map below). Whereas the map show the approximate southern bounds coming nearly to the MA state line, I did note that some of their Eastern native test samples seemed to come from Fort Orange/Albany area. Perhaps that line is a little fuzzy and might more closely correlate to the biomes (montane vs pine-oak plains) that also approximate the northern MA line.

Meaning, the Abenaki people did know the red fox as native, and had a word for that particular relative (possibly w8kwses?) and may even have enjoyed some trade advantage with more southern groups due to that!

No photo description available.
Rich Holschuh The map key is a little cut-off on the left. Expand the image to full screen to view. (Light gray is the Eastern lineage genetic clade)
Jesse Bruchac Rich Holschuh really cool! Wliwni for sharing. I was raised under the notion they were invasive. But I do love those little red foxes! Nice to know they’ve called Ndakinna home for so long. ❤️

Wendell Sanborn kchi wliwni Lich!!! thank you Rich!!! I am so happy that you posted this info about foxes being from here!!!

 

Documentary Examines Forced Separation of Native American Families

anna townsend testimony residential school

The film’s storyline is fragmentary, its focal point like a crack in a wall.

A young girl, chin tipped up to the microphone, fingers toying with a bead necklace, attempts to tell a room full of congressmen about the abuse her brother endured, but she chokes on an enormous sob and can’t go on. In a black-and-white photo of American Indian children at a boarding school, identical in their close-cropped and bobbed haircuts and plain clothing, the number of children grows larger and larger as the camera zooms out, and then, a moment later, the image becomes just one of many pinpoints on a map of the United States. A woman tells of having her mouth washed out with soap for speaking Penobscot and abruptly stops. The screen goes black.

Throughout the new documentary Dawnland, screening Oct. 19 in Dartmouth College’s Loew Auditorium, a sense of incompleteness, of halted revelations and impenetrable grief, pervades. As it explores a dark and largely overlooked aspect of American life, the film opens just a tiny fissure, grants only the smallest suggestion of healing.

It is, nevertheless, a start.

Read the full article by Sarah Earle in the Valley News.

From the Perspective of the First Mainers: Workshop Teaches Wabanaki History

wabanaki map bowdoin REACH

The Wabanaki map literally at the center of a recent Bowdoin workshop was imprinted, like a fabric mosaic, of images integral to the history of the Wabanaki people and their culture: a red eagle, a tri-colored dream catcher, fish, and mammals.

Over the course of the workshop, the Wabanaki map—the colorful storyboard in the middle of the room—was folded up and broken apart several times, representing the fragmented nature of Wabanaki history. By the end, the pieces were rolled out and put back together, as if to symbolize the resilience of the Wabanaki up to the present day.

“We are working toward truth, healing, and change with educational programs that teach how the process of colonization happened and continues to happen here,” said Kates.

Diana Furukawa ’18 helped facilitate the recent afternoon event in the Edwards Center for Art and Dance with Maine-Wabanaki REACH, a nonprofit engaging non-native people in restorative justice for the Wabanaki. The Wabanaki refers to five nations—the Mi’kmaq, Maliseet, Passamaquoddy, Abenaki, and Penobscot—who are from the Northeastern part of the country, including Maine.

Furukawa currently works at the public library in Millinocket, Maine, helping with community-led grassroots revitalization efforts in the Katahdin area. To bring the Wabanaki  event to Bowdoin, Furukawa partnered with Barbara Kates, REACH’s community organizer.

“We are working toward truth, healing, and change with educational programs that teach how the process of colonization happened and continues to happen here,” said Kates.

Read the full press release here.

Wabanaki Basketmakers: Harvesting Sweetgrass Can Be Sustainable

wabanaki maine sweetgrass

Before Europeans settled on the East Coast, the Wabanaki tribes had open access to all of Maine’s natural resources, from eels to ash, and sweetgrass to salmon.

Currently jurisdictional battles over important natural resources still simmer, but the Wabanaki nation, and a handful of other federally recognized nations around the country, are working toward harvest rights in some of the nation’s most protected areas. A pilot project underway downeast could serve as a national model.

There are few places more challenging than a Maine marsh in the depths of July, which features humid, clinging air with the odor of rotten egg, plenty of places to disappear into the brackish muck and, of course, lots of mosquitos. But something very important has enticed generations of Wabanaki to places like this each summer.

“See this right here? This is solid, this is all sweetgrass right here. All of this…Behind you there’s another batch, but over there? See…that’s mixed in,” says Gal Frey.

Read and listen to this story at Maine Public.