Skamonkas: Corn Maker Moon

skamonkas corn maker moon

Catching up on the calendar again: tonight’s new moon (September 28, 2019) begins a new month, but we will take that up immediately after we acknowledge Skamonkas, the moon just ending .

The ninth month of the Abenaki lunar calendar is the Corn Maker Moon, Skamonkas, following the preceding eighth month of Temez8was, the Cutter (Harvest) Moon. The flint corn crop has ripened and is finally dried on the stalk, ready for harvesting. The dried ears will be gathered and stored for later use, often by grinding into flour or meal.

This particular lunar month began in the current year’s sun cycle with the new moon on August 30, 2019, and progressed through the full moon September 14th, which gives the name. The name itself derives from the simple addition of skamon for corn plus -ka for maker plus -s as a short ending for moon (kizos).

N’wliwni, Nigawes Kizos – nd’alamizi.  I thank you Grandmother Moon – I am grateful.

Temez8was: Cutter (Harvester) Moon

wiseman abenaki harvest

I was unable to finish this post in a timely manner, within the past, actual month (!) – but in the interests of having a complete cycle, I post it now. Tonight begins the new month, but we will take that up very shortly. I submit this entry as I had begun to draft it mid-month.

The eighth month of the Abenaki lunar calendar is the Cutter (Harvest) Moon, Temez8was, following the preceding seventh month of Temaskikos, the Grass Cutter Moon. This is the time when the first fruits of the summer planting – squash and beans among them,  and the gifts of field and forest – blueberries, blackberries, and their kin, begin to ripen and are ready for harvesting. The month began in this sun cycle with the new moon on July 31, 2019, and we are now just beginning to wax toward  the full moon August 15th, which gives the name.

The month’s name  – similar to the previous – derives from the root tem- (also spelled tam- or simply tm-) meaning “to cut, to sever tranversely, to chop” plus -ezo (or -izo) for moon (kizos) with -was signifying “one who”.

 

We should keep in mind that a moon may have more than one name, depending on the region and the people there, the predominant activities of the season, and evolving realities.  Other names used for this time, equally apropos for the harvest time, are Mijow8gankas ala (or) Michinikizosak – Meal Maker or Eating Moons. Another one is Kawakwenikas, the Gatherer or Wild Harvester, as the voluntary bounty of our Mother is also given freely in late summer, for which we give great thanks. Kchi wliwni, Nigawes – nd’alamizi!

 

Temaskikos: Grass Cutter Moon

 

jackie traverse sweetgrass mother earth

The hair of our Mother, wlim8gwkil mskiko, sweet grass – literally, “sweet smelling grass” – is one of July’s many gifts. Artwork by Jackie Traverse, Ojibwe

Sweet Grass …is a gift to the people from Mother Earth. It is said to be part of her hair, and the braided strands represent mind, body and spirit. Since sweet grass promotes strength and kindness, it is often used in healing circles and in ceremony to allow positive energy, kind thoughts and kind feelings to surface through any pain and suffering.

My Mother Earth is under the ground, surrounded by rocks known as the grandfathers. Her hair grows through the earth’s surface to allow us to pick sweet grass, providing medicine and a gift for the people. Take only what you need when picking sweet grass – offer Mother Earth tobacco in appreciation for the gifts she gives to us all.

Jackie Traverse, Anishnaabe-Ojibwe

The seventh month of the Abenaki lunar calendar is the Grass Cutter Moon, following the preceding sixth month of Nokahigas, the Hoer Moon. This is the time when the new sprouts of the year’s planting appreciate some nurturing care, in the competition of their warming rush toward the sun. The month began in this sun cycle with the new moon on July 2, 2019, and we are near witnessing  the full moon which shines in two days, July 16th, and gives the name.

The compounding word derives from three roots: tem- (also spelled tam- or simply tm-) meaning “to cut, to sever tranversely, to chop”, and maskiko (also mskiko), meaning “grass”, and -kos as a combination of “one who” and “moon”.

sweetgrass braid

Now that we are in midsummer, n8winiben, the abundance of the growing season surrounds us. Crops are growing, fruit and nuts are ripening, our other-than-human relations are raising their young. The sweetgrass (Hierochloe odorata) the living hair of our Mother, is long and lush, gleaming and bright green in the meadows. It is time to harvest the strands with gratitude, braiding and drying them in a sheltered place – the sweet scent filling the air and reminding us of our Mother’s continual care.

A moon may have more than one name, depending on the region and the people there, the predominant activities of the season, and evolving realities. Culture is not static, neither is it right or wrong – it is about being appropriate and “in community.” Two other names used for this time, equally apropos for their own reasons, are Sataikas (Blueberry Maker) and Pad8gikas (Thunder Moon). You can readily understand why…

 

Nokahigas: Hoer Moon

nokahigas abenaki hoer moon

The sixth moon of the Abenaki lunar calendar is the Hoer Moon, following the planting moon (fifth moon) of Kikas, the Field Maker Moon. This is the time when the new sprouts of the year’s planting appreciate some nurturing care, in the competition of their warming rush toward the sun. The month began in this sun cycle with the new moon on June 3, 2019, and we are nigh on to the full moon which shines tomorrow, June 17th, and gives the name.

The word derives from two roots: noka- meaning “to soften” as in hoeing the earth, and -higas, a combination of “one who” and “moon”. Another name for this moon is the Strawberry Moon, in appreciation for the delicious earthly gift of the season: it is called Mskikoikas, after the Abenaki name for the strawberry itself, mskikoimens, “the little grass berry.”

And so we enter into Niben, the bountiful season of summer…

Pia8dagos: Makes Branches Fall Into Pieces Moon

The second month of the Abenaki annual cycle has begun. The new moon following Alamikos (also known as  Anhaldamawikizos) occurred on February 4, 2019 here in Sokwakik. In Western Abenaki, Pia8dagos means “makes branches fall into pieces” or ‘falling in pieces branches maker.” Last night’s windstorm made the reasoning abundantly clear.

W8kwses in Nd’akinna

red fox w8kwses winter

In the interests of sharing some of the insightful conversations happening here and there… A discussion of the Abenaki names for “fox” and its variants on the Western Abenaki Facebook page this past week (02.09.2019) led to a discovery about its original and expansionist range. I would like to archive that dialogue here.

How would you conjunct “red fox” as a person’s name aln8baiwi? I was thinking mkuigow8kwses
Mkuiw8kwses
Mkuigiw8kwses

Eric Brier Mkwiôkwses. For a name: Liwizo mkwiôkwses or ni wizwôgan mkwiôkwses or however to indicate it’s a name. So either liwizi- “to be called” or “wizwôgan” for “name”
Joseph Joubert If white fox is w8bi8kwes it stands to reason mekwi8kwes is red fox. I rest me case.

Wendell Sanborn Joseph Joubert wliwni Nijia Thank you brother

 

Wendell Sanborn Joseph JoubertJoseph so would it also make good grammatical sense pinefox would be koai8kweses?
Joseph Joubert No, because there is no such word in the English language as pinefox.

Wendell Sanborn Joseph Joubert thank you wliwni

Conor Quinn As Joseph Joubert points out, the main way to do it is likely

mkwi(w)ôkwsess

That’d be my best guess, too.

If you wanted to do it the other way, it would not be mkwigiôkwsess but
makwigit wôkwsess

…but that would be a more roundabout, literal ‘fox that is red’, so I think Elie’s version is more natural, and as he shows, more fits the pattern of similar expressions.

Joseph Joubert Thank you Conor. I have trouble expressing why I choose something other than I would use it. Thank you for offering a reason for its use. I am not a pro, but I was brought up surrounded by Abenaki speakers. My mother would stop others in the language, and announce that her son understands what is being said in Abenaki.
Rich Holschuh I could be wrong but I was under the impression that w8kwses IS the name for a red fox, as the type for all the others. Gray fox has his own name: wibegwigid w8kwses. White fox has his own name: w8biw8kwses. So it may be duplicative to specify mkwi8kwses, but it certainly does clarify!

Wendell Sanborn Rich Holschuh w8kwses = fox. But I am understanding it is a “given” that it is red as it is not specifically mentioned otherwise. Is this correct?
Rich Holschuh Wendell, I could be off the mark, but that was my understanding. Happy to learn otherwise if it is not so.

 

Jesse Bruchac Rich Holschuh I suspect it just means fox as red foxes are new to the area only migrating into the northeast in the 1800s or possibly introduced from Europe around that time.

Rich Holschuh Jesse, your answer provoked surprise and then curiosity. I was not aware that red foxes had that sort of range history. So I looked into it and found a great recent paper on exactly that!

I found that your observation did indeed have basis, but was able to get some clarification around the delimitations of native and expansionist ranges. I was pleased to learn that the study’s conclusions were that the eastern red fox’s original range approximates the Wabanaki homelands (map below). Whereas the map show the approximate southern bounds coming nearly to the MA state line, I did note that some of their Eastern native test samples seemed to come from Fort Orange/Albany area. Perhaps that line is a little fuzzy and might more closely correlate to the biomes (montane vs pine-oak plains) that also approximate the northern MA line.

Meaning, the Abenaki people did know the red fox as native, and had a word for that particular relative (possibly w8kwses?) and may even have enjoyed some trade advantage with more southern groups due to that!

No photo description available.
Rich Holschuh The map key is a little cut-off on the left. Expand the image to full screen to view. (Light gray is the Eastern lineage genetic clade)
Jesse Bruchac Rich Holschuh really cool! Wliwni for sharing. I was raised under the notion they were invasive. But I do love those little red foxes! Nice to know they’ve called Ndakinna home for so long. ❤️

Wendell Sanborn kchi wliwni Lich!!! thank you Rich!!! I am so happy that you posted this info about foxes being from here!!!

 

S8soseli: the White Throated Sparrow

Sipsis – pronounced seep-sees – #Abenaki for small bird

S8soseli – pronunced sohn-SOH-seh-lee  #Abenaki for White Throated Sparrow

The pure, simple song of the white-throated sparrow reminds us of the conversations to be joined outside of our own minds. This was going to be a post observing #NationalBirdDay, then realized it was a rather ludicrous construct. So, I will let sparrow speak for himself.

In English, the song is often described as “Old Sam Peabody, Peabody, Peabody” or, if you are a little further north, “Oh Sweet Canada, Canada, Canada.” I grew up having been taught and hearing the “Oh Sam Peabody” mnemonic. Many small birds are now known (in Western Abenaki) simply as “sipsis” (literally small bird), with no surviving differentiation between species. But a number of specific names have persisted into the present, mostly the more common and larger individuals such as crow, robin, blue jay, eagle, and turkey. I wondered if the #Abenaki had an onomatopoetic name for this little songster, a device often employed in the language, given that the song of the white throated sparrow is so memorable. To my joy, I was able to locate it! Father Rasles gives it as “sôhsohseli” – which I might rewrite as “s8soseli” pronounced sohn-SOH-seh-lee. It is a pretty good evocation of the song.

Wliwni s8soseli!