- William Dummer’s name, of course, was affixed to Fort Dummer (Wantastegok/Brattleboro) – built in the winter of 1724 by order of the Governor and the Assembly immediately after this recruitment attempt. The Vermont town immediately upriver and north is named Dummerston, also in attribution to this historical figure and his outsized influence.
- As with most politicians of the colonial period, not unlike those of today, politics and money (power) went hand in hand. William Dummer came from a wealthy family and made his own substantial fortune, in great part through land speculation – land being the transactional weapon of settler colonization. As a publicity move, he forewent his salary as Lieutenant Governor (also reminiscent of a certain current politician) while he accumulated more significant profits elsewhere.
- Gov. Dummer had direct personal interests in protecting the Connecticut River frontier above Northfield, at what became the VT/NH/MA tri-state border. He was one of the joint purchasers of the 48,000-acre-portion of the Equivalent Lands on the west bank of the mid-Kwenitekw, Sokoki Abenaki homelands.
- One of his fellow “investors” was William Brattle, Sr., who – with his son William Brattle, Jr. – similarly lent his name to a town that was chartered later by NH. Gov. Benning Wentworth. Another member of this land speculation pact and a highly influential politician was Anthony Stoddard, Esq., whose cousin Col. John Stoddard of Northampton was the actual designer of Fort Dummer. John, himself, was an investor in some of the “Equivalent Lands.” As with many people, most of these parties solidified their business and social relationships through marriage as well.
- The Abenaki resistance which Dummer and his colleagues attempted to obstruct and suppress was a direct response to the continued encroachment of British settlers on Wabanaki territories, both in the Connecticut River valley and (what became) the Maine coast, then part of Massachusetts Bay Province. Coastal and inland Abenaki groups, typically allied with Britain’s empire-building-counterpart France to the north, sought to keep the British contained.
- William Dummer – along with William Brattle and many other politicians/officers/investors and their extended heirs – had significant personal financial interests in the Eastern Abenaki homelands also.
- This series of militant actions was known as Dummer’s War, along with other, more localized theater referents. In the valley of Kwenitekw, it is often known as Greylock’s (or Gray Lock’s) War, in memory of the Western Abenaki war leader Wawanolet (or Wawanolewat) who led many raids and war parties from the north. While most other Abenaki bands to the east and north made peace agreements of a sort with Massachusetts after awhile. Wawanolewat never surrendered and died an old man among his people, around 1750.
- The clear conclusion to be drawn from these circumstances is that William Dummer (and his cronies, in the clearest sense of the word) was using public resources, influence, relationships, and funds to protect and enhance their personal interests. This included blood money for men, women, and children. One hundred Pounds was worth a fortune, over $26,000 in 1723. Not a lot has changed. The patterns of much-less-than-admirable human behavior that make up most of today’s headlines are stories that continue to play out here as well, with lasting effect.
The form Grey Lock took in people’s dreams was mostly a creation of their imaginations – few settlers had seen him. We only know from the name settlers called him that he had a streak of prematurely gray hair.
His Abenaki name, Wawanolewat, tells us more about his tactics. It means “he who fools the others.” Grey Lock may have seemed an avenging demon to settlers, but he had reasons for his actions.
By the early 1700s, the people of the British colonies were outgrowing the land they had settled along the coast of New England. Now they were pushing inland. The movement of settlers into western Massachusetts and Maine inevitably caused conflicts with the Native Americans already living there. By the early 1720s, the Abenaki had had enough. They issued an ultimatum to the governor of Massachusetts, demanding that he block more British settlers from moving west and occupying new territory. As a compromise, they said that existing settlers could remain. The colonial government responded by declaring war on the Abenaki.
It was during this period of struggle that Grey Lock became a name colonists feared. They had known of him since 1712, when he had led a raid on British settlers in Northampton, Massachusetts, during what was known as Queen Anne’s War. That war was part of the struggle between Britain and France for control of North America. This new war, however, would not be between European powers, but between British colonists and Native Americans.